Using CSS and LESS and JS files

Obviously CSS files are widely used to customize the look and structure of web pages, EPUB book pages, and more. JavaScript can add behavior to elements in the window, or can even implement full-fledged applications.

Site-wide CSS and JS declarations

AkashaRender has a simple method to declare the same set of CSS files across the entire website. In your Configuration file simply make declarations like this:

    .addFooterJavaScript({ href: "/vendor/jquery/jquery.min.js" })
    .addFooterJavaScript({ href: "/vendor/bootstrap/js/bootstrap.min.js"  })
    .addStylesheet({ href: "/vendor/bootstrap/css/bootstrap.min.css" })
    .addStylesheet({ href: "/vendor/bootstrap/css/bootstrap-theme.min.css" })
    .addStylesheet({ href: "/vendor/mythemedirectory/bootstrap.min.css" })
    .addStylesheet({ href: "/style.css" });

The config.scripts getter returns an object listing not just the CSS stylesheets, but JavaScript for page header and footer areas.

If you want to use the mechanism provided by AkashaRender's built-in plugin, put the tag <ak-stylesheets> in your page layout templates. That tag automatically expands config.scripts.stylesheets into a set of <link> tags so that the page references the stylesheets.

The actual process is handled by these tags and partials:

Tag NamePartialDiscussion
ak-stylesheetsak_stylesheets.html.ejsPuts CSS file links in the <head> section
ak-headerJavaScriptak_javaScript.html.ejs Puts JavaScript links in the <head> section
ak-footerJavaScriptak_javaScript.html.ejs Puts JavaScript links at the bottom of the <body>

Per-page CSS or JS declarations

That's well and dandy to give every page the same CSS declarations. What if you want a given page to have additional CSS? The page metadata can include entries headerStylesheetsAdd, or headerJavaScriptAddTop, or headerJavaScriptAddBottom listing any additional CSS or JS files:

   - href: /vendor/foo/baz.css
   - href: /vendor/funky/walk.css
   - href: /extraTop1.js
   - href: /extraTop2.js
   - href: /extraBottom1.js
   - href: /extraBottom2.js

Per page-group CSS or JS declarations

Remember that AkashaRender supports multiple document directories, and that a given document directory can be mounted into a subdirectory of the website, and that this mechanism supports metadata values on each document directory. That is, if you want a subsection of your website to have additional CSS files, that subsection should be mounted as a separate document directory, with have metadata including the headerStylesheetsAdd object:

Let's revisit an earlier example, adding more stylesheets to it:

    src: 'archive',
    dest: 'archive',
    baseMetadata: {
        meaningOfLife: "42",
        me: "Ashildr Einarrsdottir",
        headerStylesheetsAdd: [
            { href: "/vendor/groovy/beat.css" },
            { href: "/vendor/smooth/jazz.css" }
        headerJavaScriptAddTop: [
            { href: "/extraTop1.js" },
            { href: "/extraTop2.js" },
        headerJavaScriptAddBottom: [
            { href: "/extraBottom1.js" },
            { href: "/extraBottom2.js" }

Configuration object for stylesheets, javaScriptTop, and javaScriptBottom objects

We've seen that config.scripts.stylesheets/javaScriptTop/javaScriptBottom is an array of objects, each of which is to have an href attribute. It's the same object whether declared with the addStylesheet/addFooterJavaScript/addHeaderJavaScript function, or the two versions of the headerStylesheetsAdd/headerJavaScriptAddTop/headerJavaScriptAddBottom metadata object.

The stylesheet-related object supports a media attribute that can also show up in <link rel="stylesheet"> tags.

Suppose you have a stylesheet for printed output:

        href: "/vendor/mythemedirectory/print.css",
        media: "print"

The media attribute can express a variety of conditions. Whatever string you specify is passed through unmodified.

For JavaScript declarations you use the href tag even though the resulting script tag uses the src attribute:

<script src="..."/>

Inline style tags?

HTML also supports a <style> tag containing in-line CSS declarations. This tag isn't directly supported by AkashaRender. However you have two routes for using this tag.

  1. Simply use the <style> tag directly in your page layout template.
  2. Use a partial in several page layout templates containing the in-line CSS

The second of those two would be used when you have multiple page layouts utilizing the same in-line CSS.

Using the LESS processor to simplify your CSS files

LESS is a popular mechanism to simplify writing CSS files. It is a processor giving you a nicer CSS-like syntax, that produces CSS.

AkashaRender has a built-in Renderer for compiling LESS files to CSS files.

One can put their CSS files into assets or documents directories as files ending in .css. From either directory structure, AkashaRender will copy those files into the destination directory unmodified.

To use LESS, add one or more files into the documents directory with filename ending in .css.less. This file extension triggers the CSSLESSRenderer object, which does the LESS-to-CSS compiling producing a matching .css file.

Supporting other CSS processors

What if LESS isn't your cup-of-tea? It's fairly easy to write a different Renderer supporting some other CSS processor.

Using CSS and LESS and JS files

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